By Associate Attorney Danielle Nodar
Who Inherits My Property?
As mentioned in the previous article in this series, you are deemed to have died “intestate” if you die without a will. North Carolina’s Intestate Succession Act is the default law that kicks in if you pass away without a will. It names which of your surviving family members are considered your legal heirs in North Carolina (spoiler alert! Not step kids or “common law spouses”) and the order in which they will inherit.
Only the assets that could have passed through a will are governed by this law. These assets are known as a person’s probate property, which is usually all of the assets that a person owns in their individual name and assets that do not pass via beneficiary designations. Some examples of non-probate assets not commonly governed by the intestate succession laws are life insurance, retirement accounts, jointly owned property with rights of survivorship, securities with named beneficiaries, and Pay on Death or Transfer on Death accounts. However, there could be circumstances where these non-probate assets could become part of your probate estate and thus subject to the intestate succession laws, such as if a named beneficiary predeceases you and there is no back-up named or you fail to designate a beneficiary in the first place.
The most common misconception surrounding intestate succession is that your spouse will inherit everything if you pass away without a will. This is sometimes not the case if you have probate property and are survived by your spouse, children, or parents. For example, if you do not have a will and are survived by a spouse and one child (or grandchildren, if that one child is deceased), in addition to receiving the spousal allowance, your surviving spouse takes the first $60,000 of your personal property, ½ of your real property, and ½ of whatever remains of your personal property while the child inherits the remainder.
If you are survived by a spouse and more than one child (or grandchildren in the event of predeceased children), the spouse inherits 1/3 of your real estate, the first $60,000 of personal property, and 1/3 of whatever remains of the personal property. Your children will evenly split the remaining 2/3 of your personal property and 2/3 of your real estate.
If you do not have children but are survived by a spouse and parent(s), your spouse will inherit ½ of your real property, the first $100,000 of your personal property, and ½ of the remaining balance of your personal property. Your parent(s) will inherit ½ of your real estate and any personal property remaining after the spouse’s share.
Thus, without a will, you do not have full control over where your probate property will go at your death. You may be inadvertently leaving property to people with whom you do not have a close relationship or to family that does not need your assets. You could also be leaving a headache instead of an inheritance if heirs do not get along. For example, if you have a spouse and a child from a previous relationship, they could potentially become joint owners of real estate. If they do not agree on what to do with the property, court procedures may be necessary in order to sell and divide assets. You could also be leaving a family member in need if you do not have a will. For example, if you have a spouse and minor children, you may want your spouse to inherit all of your assets to be able to more easily take care of your children and not leave real estate to minor children.
If you have questions about intestacy in North Carolina, drafting a will, or ensuring that your wishes regarding your property are honored once you pass away, please call Jesson & Rains.
By Attorney Edward Jesson
It is often assumed when talking about purchasing a business that your only option is to purchase the business outright. However, there is a different solution which, depending on the circumstances, could have some benefits: purchasing the target business’s assets instead of the whole company.
When you purchase a business outright, be it all of the stock of a corporation or all of the membership interest in an LLC, you are buying everything. That includes all of the business’s assets but also includes all of the business’s liabilities, some of which could be unknown at the time of the purchase. In any business purchase agreement, there should be a “due diligence” period which will allow you to uncover as many of those hidden risks as possible, but it is nearly impossible to uncover every possible risk that exists.
Most purchase agreements will contain some form of indemnification clause providing that the seller will defend and insure the buyer from various liabilities. However, negotiating an indemnification provision that adequately protects the buyer can potentially increase the purchase price requested by the seller and can also be difficult and expensive to enforce if an issue does arise in the future.
However, when you purchase only the assets of a company you are buying the possessions of the business and putting them into a new business name. The buyer can (at least to a certain extent) dictate what liabilities of the selling business are being purchased which can assist in limiting the buyer’s liability and risk in moving forwards with the transaction. Another benefit of buying a business’s assets is that the buyer can also elect to purchase some, but not all, of the target business’s assets. For example, if you were buying a trucking company you may elect not to buy the old trucks that don’t have any useful life left.
There are downsides to an asset purchase. For example, contracts between the old business and its customers/vendors may need to be renegotiated in the new business’s name. There could also be similar implications with key employees depending on the terms of any employment agreements that were in place with the old business.
Whichever route you choose, it is important to work with a team of advisors who can assist you in the process. While not discussed in detail here, there are different tax implications depending on whether you purchase the business or just the assets, about which a CPA would need to advise.
If you’re thinking of purchasing a business, or a business’s assets, the attorneys at Jesson & Rains are ready to help you through the process.
By Associate Attorney Danielle Nodar
If you pass away without a will in North Carolina, there are statutes that govern who will serve as your executor and who will inherit your estate. However, dying without a well-written will can leave your loved ones with a variety of legal hurdles to overcome.
The first article of this series discusses who will be responsible for administering your estate if you pass away without a will and what are some of the issues they may face when trying to get appointed by the probate court. The next article in this series will discuss how property is distributed if you die without a will in North Carolina.
When you die without a will, you are deemed to have died “intestate.” Each state has its own intestacy laws, which are the “default” option that outlines major decisions in the probate process, such as who can serve as your executor and their qualification requirements. The appointment of the executor is the first step in probating an estate. The executor is responsible for collecting all of your remaining assets at death, paying all of your legally enforceable debts and expenses out of those assets, and distributing any remaining assets to your heirs. A court will never appoint an executor who is a convicted felon, incapacitated, or under the age of 18, but generally, if you have a will, you can name anyone, and the court will respect your decision.
If you die without a will, the clerk of court will appoint someone in the following order: (1) a surviving spouse; (2) any heir; (3) any next of kin, with the person who is of closer kinship under having priority; (4) any creditor of the decedent; (5) any person of good character residing in the county who applies therefor; and (6) any other person of good character. The person the court appoints could be someone you don’t particularly want to handle your estate, and you could avoid that by naming them in your will. Also, there could be issues with relatives who are the same degree of kinship arguing over who should serve, which could cause unnecessary delays and expenses if the dispute cannot be resolved without attorneys.
The other issue is that, generally, a bond is required of the executor of an estate. This bond is an insurance policy, and it is required to protect the beneficiaries of the estate in the event that the executor breaches their duties in administering the estate, such as by running off with the estate assets. The executor must be able to pass a credit check in order to obtain the bond and pay the bond premium of out-of-pocket (which can sometimes be quite high) because they will not have access to your assets before they are appointed executor by the probate court.
There are two ways to avoid the bond. First, all of the heirs could sign a document waiving the bond requirement, but this requires them to all be in agreement (which sometimes doesn’t happen) and they all must be age 18 or older and otherwise have capacity. The second way to avoid the bond is to waive the requirement in a will. This makes is easier from the outset for your desired executor to serve. After all, they’re doing a job for your benefit and the benefit of your family.
Lastly, another benefit of having a well-written will is that attorneys can put helpful provisions in the will that don’t otherwise exist under the default intestacy statutes that make it easier for the executor to do their jobs. For example, we can write in the will that the executor can sell a house if needed to pay debts of the estate; whereas, if the same person died without a will, the executor would have to file a motion with the court and having a hearing (costing them money, and likely requiring an attorney) in order to sell the house.
If you have questions about intestacy in North Carolina, drafting a will, or ensuring that a person of your choosing is able to manage your estate once you have passed away, please call Jesson & Rains.
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